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Women's sport: The story of a fight

By hollisterclothingoutlet 31/01/2023 660 Views

Throughout history, women have fought against wind and tide to make their way on a path full of obstacles and prejudices, also in the field of women's sport.

Society had a stereotyped idea of women and decided whether or not they could practice sports and what specific disciplines.As in other cultural and social fields, women have also had to rebel to be present and have recognition for their successes and achievements.

1880-1920

Women who raised the voice

In the beginning of modern sport, the role of women in sport was tiny, because it was not considered adequate that women carried out activities that required strength, resistance, or aggressiveness.Despite these hard beginnings, little by little women have made their way and today we already find women who practice any type of sport, although in many cases there are still much less number and get less recognition.The way to get here has been long, and sometimes, he has gone back.

In Spain some women's clubs were created, such as Cyclist in Galicia (1890) and the female swimming club (1912) in Catalonia and, with them, the change began.There is a first stage, according to the history of sport, in which women began to raise their voice.It was in the 20s of the twentieth century.With the end of World War I (1914-1918), although the Olympic Committee continued to reject them, we already found the pioneers in sports practices such as football, athletics, swimming, fencing, skiing and many other modalities.

1920-1936

A small step in women's sport

With the Second Spanish Republic, in 1931, female participation in sport grew, since they began to move towards modernity and overcome some male stereotypes.Although there were disciplines that was still frowned upon to participate a woman, opportunities for women multiplied.

At this time, figures such as Lilí Álvarez (1905-1998), a pioneer of Spanish sport and first Spanish tennis player to get two international triumphs highlighted.Álvarez, in addition to tennis, came to practice numerous sports such as skiing, mountaineering, riding, billiards, motoring, and skating, and stood out for being the first Spanish woman who participated in Olympics, the winter of Chamonix of 1924.In addition, Álvarez was the most dominant tennis player of the 20s, when he won three consecutive finals in the Wimbledon tournament.Throughout his life, he gained 40 individual tournaments, 19 doubles and 21 mixed, getting to beat the best players of that time.

A relevant fact of Lilí Álvarez's life is that, in 1931, she was the first woman to use pants skirt, a garment considered scandalous at that time and that has been used later in tennis.

Deporte femenino: la historia de una lucha

On the other hand, in the 30s, he highlighted the Female Club I d’Esports in Barcelona, which was a only female sports institution that came to have more than 1000 members.It was founded in 1928 at the initiative of Teresa Torrens and Enriqueta Sèculi, and was the first sports institution that was dedicated exclusively to women's sport throughout the Spanish state.The club, which remained active to the outbreak of the Civil War (1936-1939), began, directed and was frequented only by women, hence his commitment to popular popular sport.

At this time, figures such as Anna María Martínez Sagi (1907-2000) stand out, which in addition to being a champion of Spain in javelin and national recordist of this discipline, it is important to know her because she was the first woman who was part of the Board of DirectorsFrom Football Club Barcelona, just between 1934 and 1936.

It was also the first great directive of Spanish football and its objective was to enhance women's sport because it considered that it was necessary to bring women to modernity.In addition, during the Second Spanish Republic it was considered one of the most important journalists of the time, because with only nineteen years he already published in the female supplement of the newspaper Las Noticias.

1936-1975

Franco broke out with everything

All the advance that women had jumped through the air with the civil war and began the Franco dictatorship, which endured until 1975.Throughout that time, the linking of women to sport was totally under the decision of the authorities of the new regime.

At that time, moral and religious discourse said that women could not perform sports that involved the use of strength or aggressiveness for fear of virilization.It was considered that women had to carry out activities oriented to their maternal function, to reinforce the appearance of fragile and delicate, and should be carried out in a very conditioned way carrying the clothes that were considered adequate and avoiding performing physical education or sport together with men.Despite all these limitations, and the mentality of many people around the environment, some women managed to practice sports and enjoy physical activity.

At this point the figure of Josefina Carabias (1908-1980) is remarkable, considered one of the first women journalists throughout Spain and the first that was a correspondent in the United States.Carabias dedicated himself to journalism during the Second Republic, Franco and Transition, because he was linked to communication.She worked in Spanish media until, with the outbreak of the Civil War, she fled to France with her husband.From there he made sporadic collaborations with Argentine and Mexican magazines.

Carabia.In 1950 he published the book Women in Soccer, which is a compilation of her articles published in the press.The great success of his football chronicles culminated, in 1951, with the Luca de Tena Award, Carabias decided to leave the pseudonym of Carmen Moreno with which he so far signed his articles for fear of showing his true identity.

1975-2000

With the end of the dictatorship, the change began

With the end of the Francoist dictatorship and the democratic transition, there was a process of democratization of sport that allowed the greatest incorporation of women to sports, and also the impulse of a wide variety of activities that respond to the needs and needsWomen's interests.At this stage there were structural changes with which the population was facilitated, and also women, access to sports programs and sports facilities sports.

In addition, changes in the education system also came to physical education, so that boys and girls went on to carry out the same educational program.However, this did not mean that the situations of inequality disappear, since, without adequate pedagogical action, they can follow the situations of daily discrimination in the classes and continue to give more importance to competition sports, byexample, that to the activities of body expression and dance.

Currently, many more women can enjoy sports and physical activity, although statistical data indicate that 37% of women for 46.2% of men practice sports.Likewise, the number of female sports licenses represents only 23%, the presence of women in the management positions of sports entities represents 4%, and although the number of women athletes in the JJOO is already practically 50%In the Rio's Olympic Games, coaches represented only 13% in the Spanish delegation.

The professionalization of female sports and the presence in the media, also have a long way to go.Despite the changes and achievements achieved since the end of the S.XX, there are still many challenges to achieve real equality between women and men in sport.

SOURCES: National Institute d'E Educació de Catalunya (INEFC), National Institute of Statistics (INE), Wikipedia, Heroines.net, Dmujer.

Trabaja la actualidad en el aula

Junior Report Classroom

The Didactic Unit on Women and Sports proposes informative content and free exercises to work in class.It has INEFC's collaboration.

Didactic unit on women and sport

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Articles about women and sport

CLICA PARA CONSULTARLOS.

Catalog Didactic Units

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