The atmosphere ozone layer acts as a protective shield preventing a large part of the radiation emitted by the Sun.In recent years, some substances produced by man have been damaging and thinning this layer, so this protection has been lost in part.
All this shows that we must be prepared to take care of the sun's rays, to be able to establish a new relationship with the sun, since it is not about avoiding outdoor life, but about changing our habits.
Children are more exposed to the harmful effects of the sun on their skin.In childhood, the skin has not completed its development and does not have the defense mechanisms that adults have in the face of external aggressions such as heat and solar radiation.Dra.Stella Binelli, coordinator of the Emerger Pediatrics Area, explains: “The skin in the small child has a greater skin surface in relation to its body weight.In addition, it has less synthesis capacity of melanin and has not completely developed the ability to regulate body temperature.Therefore, babies and young children are at greater risk of suffering harmful effects such as erythema, redness, solar burns and other problems such as insoloations due to long exposure to the sun.
It is important to emphasize that solar burns that are suffered in childhood are one of the main risk factors to develop a melanoma in adulthood.The harmful effects of the sun are cumulative and irreversible since the skin has memory.
Compared to adolescents and adults, children produce more temperature in relation to body mass during physical activities such as walking and running, have low sweating capacity and increase body temperature during dehydration.Intense activities should be reduced when climatic conditions exceed critical levels ”.
Minors should not be exposed to the sun directly.The Argentine and the Pediatrics La Spain do not approve the use of photoprotective creams in children under six months.After this age, it is recommended to use large spectrum solar screens, that is, protect against UVB and UVA rays, with sun protection factor (FPS) 30, apply them half an hour before exposure and renew the same every 2 hours.Remember that the clouds let the sun pass.Sand, water and snow increase its action.
Sunscreens are compounds that help prevent the arrival of the RUV into the skin.The sun protection factor (FPS) is the capacity measure that a sunscreen has to prevent solar rays from damaging our skin.In terms of percentage we can say that an FPS 15 blocks approximately 93% of the RUV, an FPS 30 blocks 97% and an FPS 50 blocks 99%.
Sunscreens are contraindicated in children under 6 months.
Humidity and heat favor the appearance of inflammations and skin rashes.Diseases such as Sudamina that consists of rashes and that occur when sweat is retained and is generally located on the baby's back, or as diaper dermatitis that consists of the irritation of the skin that is in contact with the diaper.Although, they are not exclusive to summer, high temperatures increase sweat and appear more frequently.To prevent them, you have to ensure that the skin is dry as long as possible, for example.Increase the frequency of diaper change.In some situations, astringent creams should be indicated.
Hydration is fundamental, in general babies fed with breastfeed.Evaluating hydration is a priority, a good way to know that it is correct is to control the amount of urine, if it decreases you have to offer more liquids.An infant will be well hydrated if he cries with tears, he has saliva in his mouth and good diuresis (amount of urine).
From Emerger, the health services company leaves us general recommendations:
Remember to avoid direct sun: "Short shadow - high risk"
- Children must remain in fresh, well ventilated places.
- Ensure that they watch comfortable clothes, of light colors, light, preferably cotton, or remain without clothes.
- Liquid offices constantly, even without thirst, safe water or natural juices.Avoid synthetic sugary drinks.
- In case of feeding with breastfeeding, increasing the frequency of the shots.
- Avoid sun exposure at schedules from 10 a.m..Do not expose babies under 1 year.
- If they are outdoors, protect them with hats or caps with visor.Remember to apply sunscreen in exposed areas still on cloudy days.
- Báñelos and Mojeles the body often.
- Make sure that the food you eat have taken care of the cold chain, wash vegetables with abundant water and that the meat is well cooked.
- Do not perform sports or outdoor physical activity on very hot days.
Remember that sun exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVA and UVB) in childhood is responsible for up to 90 % of skin cancer in adults.
It is also important to note that in the face of heat and outdoor life, insects are present and in order to prevent their bites, it is convenient to use a repellent, although babies cannot use the same as adults since they could be toxic, theirskin is thinner and more absorbent than that of adults.It is advised for children under 2 years of age made based on a medicinal plant called citronela.
In case of needing the placement of repellent, place the sunscreen first and approximately 30 minutes later the repellent.
Insect sting allergy is a frequent consultation in pediatrics.The most frequent bites are those of mosquitoes, which can produce a very pruriginous ranch or papula on the site, which persists 1 or 2 days.They can be infected with scratch.Other insects, such as tábanos, fleas, caterpillars and spiders, can also produce reactions, but generally mild.
A special mention for wasps, bees and colored ants since they are more important for their possible severity.Produce 2 types of reactions:
A toxic reaction, which is the most frequent, at the local level with intense pain, and redness, which can last 72 hours or more.It must always be consulted by its potential severity.
An allergic reaction that is due to an immunological mechanism mediated by immunoglobulin and specific.On the site of the bite can present pain, pruritus, redness, important edema.In some cases, you can acquire gravity when they affect the airway.Anaphylactic reaction is the maximum clinical expression of gravity.It is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention, since there is a generalized urticaria, respiratory distress, gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiovascular and neurological commitment.The diagnosis is based on the medical history, the identification of the insect, the skin diagnostic tests carried out and interpreted by the pediatric allergy specialist.
Allergic patients to these insects should consider a series of precautions to reduce the risk of new bites, such as promoting the use of repellent, not walking barefoot, and shaking clothes left on the ground before putting it.
These special care try to modify habits in order to enhance prevention measures to enjoy outdoor summer and with a healthy life for our children with the least possible risk.
They must be accompanied by an early education in prevention and self -care to understand why these measures are taken and allow healthy habits for a lifetime.
- Summer care.Recommendations of Pediatrics's Argentine.
- Special care for the baby during the summer.Spanish Pediatrics.Dra.Eugenia Fernandez Goula.
- Sun damage prevention.Photo Education Children and Environment Committee.Argentina of Pediatrics.